Biomass is the sum of the substances constituting the body of organisms as plants, bacteria, algae and fungi and animals. This term is often called exploitable crop biomass for energy purposes. Biomass energy has its origin in the sunlight and photosynthesis so it is a renewable energy source.
Biofuel arises by targeted production or preparation from biomass.
We divide biomass into "dry" (e.g. wood) and "wet" (e.g.manure - liquid and solid excrements of livestock mingled with water). The basic processing technology is divided into dry processes (thermochemical conversion), such as combustion, gasification and pyrolysis and wet processes (biochemical conversion) which include anaerobic digestion (methane fermentation), alcohol fermentation and production of biohydrogen.
Flammable gas components, e.g. wood-gas are realised when the biomass is exposed to high temperatures,. If air is present, combustion occurs, i.e. in terms of simple combustion. As regards heating without air, the resulting wood gas is discharged into the combustion chamber, where it burns like other gaseous fuels. The advantages are easy capacity control, lower emissions, higher efficiency.
Calorific value of wood and other plant fuels varies not only by the type of wood and plants, but also with humidity to which these fuels are more sensitive.
Biomass predominantly as wood chips is burned in large quantities in conventional power plants in circulating fluidized bed boilers with flue gas along with steam coal. For industrial applications or district heating systems there are used boilers over 100 kW burning wood chips and also straw bales. Sometimes these devices are used in combined heat and power (cogeneration). Burning of biomass and co-firing biomass with coal energy in large quantities, depending on any changes in the relevant legislation appears to be a promising direction of renewable energy in the Czech Republic.
Boilers for family houses usually operate so that the fuel is first gasified and then the gas is combusted. Such system allows a very good control and it is comparable with gas boiler. The boilers burn mostly timber logs or sawdust briquettes, sometimes in combination with wood chips or wood waste. Compressed sawdust pellets are gaining popularity and allow unattended operation of the boiler and convenient transport and storage.
Biogas is produced during the decomposition of organic matter (manure, green plants, sewage sludge) in closed tanks without oxygen. Manure, straw manure, straw, remnants of grasses, corn stalks, potato tops, and more of agriculture waste is used energetically. In this way, it is also possible to process straw, sawdust and other waste, the process is slower.
Feedstock is the most important thing for the processing of biomass. The basis for the continuous production and product quality is to achieve a homogeneous raw material of ideal humidity. Pellet diameter is 6 -16 mm and briquette diameter is from16 mm. The technology is very flexible and can be adapted to the requirements of the investor. When you think about the intent it is necessary for an investor to consider performance lines with availability in the region. In the case of transporting the raw material at greater distances it is preferable to install the technology in different regions to optimize the transport costs.
Wood pellets - (according to the kind of the processed wood), wood pellets have a higher calorific value than vegetable pellets (17.5 MJ / kg) and a lower ash content (0.5% - 1%).
For this kind of applications, we recommend an extended warranty and after warranty service in contract.